Without a doubt, Layer 1 blockchains have boomed since the last year with various new L1 platforms. It can be considered an alternative blockchain to Ethereum, the OG and market-dominated platform. Especially, due to the recent Solana and Nomad hacks, investors and developers need a more secure blockchain than ever before. Among the rising Layer 1 platform, Aptos and Sui caught the attention of t tech-savvy people and venture capitalists (VC). In this article, we’ll analyze and compare Aptos vs Sui blockchain and reveal which Layer1 platform is better.
1. What is Aptos blockchain?
Aptos Blockchain was officially launched on October 17th, after four years of development and millions of dollars in funding. It is the Layer 1 platform, which aims to create the ideal blockchain by preserving decentralization and providing top-tier security while providing scalability, fast transaction speed, and low fees.
It aims to decentralize the cloud infrastructure that drives web2 in order to create a comprehensive blockchain solution that encourages the widespread use of web3. The DApp ecosystem that Aptos Blockchain plans to create will be centered on tackling real-world problems.
2. What is Sui Blockchain?
Sui is a permissionless, PoS-powered Layer 1 blockchain that seeks to offer immediate settlement and fast throughput while also opening up a vast array of latency-sensitive, future-proof decentralized applications. It enables programmers to construct Web3 initiatives that will cater to the anticipated huge influx of Web3 consumers.
Sui is backed by Mysten Labs - the Web3 infrastructure organization founded by former senior executives at Meta’s Novi Research. It is made up of experts in cryptography, programming languages, and distributed systems.
3. Aptos vs Sui comparison
a. Aptos vs Sui: Programming Language
Sui and Aptos both use Move, a Rust-based programming language. However, Sui's version of Move differs slightly from Aptos', which uses a version that is closer to the original iteration.
Move, a bytecode language used to build smart contracts and customized transactions on the blockchain network is essentially considered the future of Web3 programming language. According to the white paper of Diem, Move focuses on 2 aspects: scarcity and access control. While scarcity restricts the generation of assets to prevent any double spending, access control manages ownership and privileges.
The main component that makes the biggest difference between Move language of Sui blockchain and Aptos blockchain is the model. Sui's Move uses an object-centric model, while Aptos uses an address-centric one. It means that tokens, smart contracts, NFTs will be displayed as “objects". Contrarily, Aptos works closely with most blockchain networks, where practically all activity involved updating data related to addresses. However, this method necessitates that the network update with two ledgers, for both senders and recipients. practically all on-chain operations involve changing the data related to each object, therefore most transfers simply necessitate a single update to the ledger. Sui's implementation of Move, in contrast to Aptos, makes it explicit whether an object is owned, shared, mutable, or immutable.
b. Aptos vs Sui: Architecture
Using BlockSTM, a derivative of the HotStuff consensus protocol, Aptos uses parallelization by dynamically identifying dependencies and allocating execution tasks.
HotStuff is an enhanced BFT consensus protocol that Aptos uses. Aptos subsequently enhanced it under the moniker AptosBFT after Diem tweaked it to create DiemBFT. Here are the main points of Aptos consensus:
- AptosBFT: Maintains network decentralization by analyzing on-chain states and automatically updating validators to fix unqualified validators without human intervention. Even if certain nodes failed, the BFT system can still function.
- Aptos Block-STM: This system helps Aptos to process up to 160,000 transactions per second. Block-STM also establishes the dependencies between transactions, so if one cannot be validated, the operations that depend on it will be re-executed.
Meanwhile, Sui implements Narwhal and Tusk as their consensus algorithm used for parallelization at the execution layer. The protocol is asynchronous, which means it can withstand DoS (denial of service) attacks.
- Narwhal: is the mempool module, in charge of making sure that transaction data is available.
- Tusk: is the consensus module that orders the transactions submitted for consensus (for complex transactions).
c. Aptos vs Sui: Tokenomics
APT is the native token of Aptos, with an initial supply of 1 billion tokens. According to Aptos Labs, 82% of the initial supply is currently staked for Proof of Staking (PoS) participation across all categories below:
- 51.02% will be distributed to the community (10-year vesting period)
- 19.00% will be distributed to core contributors (4-year vesting period)
- 16.50% will be distributed to the Aptos Foundation (10-year vesting period)
- 13.48% will be distributed to the project’s investors (4-year vesting period)
Mysten Labs, on the other hand, created a full whitepaper on their native coin, SUI. There is a fixed supply of 10 billion tokens. According to the economic model, Sui holders delegate their tokens to validators at the start of each Sui era, and a new validation committee is formed.
Accordingly, SUI - the network's native coin will have the following main uses:
- Gas fees: Participants in the Proof of Stake mechanism are rewarded with gas fees. It can also be used to protect against spam and denial-of-service attacks.
- Storage Fund: Sui's storage is used to distribute stake rewards to validators over time in order to pay future validators to bear on-chain data storage costs.
- Proof-of-stake Mechanism: Used to select, incentivize and reward platform operators, also known as validators and delegators.
- On-chain voting: To vote on decisions on governance and protocol upgrades.
- In addition, Sui also has a gas pricing mechanism to keep gas fees low and predictable.
4. Conclusion: Aptos vs Sui - which is the better Layer1 platform?
Currently, it's hard to claim which is the better Layer1 platform right now since both Aptos and Sui are two distinct and ambitious L1 projects developed by capable teams with extensive technical and product knowledge.
Sui's unconventional approach to blockchains, with its object-centric architecture, definitely offers a fresh perspective on the L1 area. And with Aptos, we'll keep an eye on their "upgradability" and see how it works.
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